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V

Vacancy
A type of structural imperfection in which an individual atom site is temporarily unoccupied.

Vacuum Melting
Melting in a vacuum to prevent contamination from air, as well as to remove gases already dissolved in the metal; the solidification may also be carried out in a vacuum or at low pressure.

Vanadium
Chemical symbol V. Element No. 23 of the periodic system; atomic weight 50.95. Gray-white, hard metal, unaffected by atmospheric influences or alkalis but soluble in most strong acids; melting point 3119 (degrees) F.; boiling point about 6150 (degrees) F.; specific gravity 5.87. It cannot be electrodeposited. Its principal functions as an alloy in the making of tool steels. (1) Elevates coarsening temperature of austenite (promotes fine grain). (2) Increases hardenability (when dissolved) (3) Resists tempering and causes marked secondary hardening.

Veining
A type of sub-boundary structure that can be delineated because of the presence of a greater-than-average concentration of precipitate or solute atoms.

Vibrator Reed Steel
Hardened, tempered and white polished wxtra precision rolled. Carbon content about 1.00. Steel must withstand great fatigue stresses.

Vickers Hardness (Test)
Standard method for measuring the hardness of metals, particularly those with extremely hard surfaces; the surface is subjected to a standard pressure for a standard length of time by means of a pyramid shaped diamond. The diagonal of the resulting indention is measured under a microscope and the Vickers Hardness value read from a conversion table.

Virgin Metal
Metal obtained directly from ore and not used before.